عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Nowadays one of the problems of countries around the world, is the use of drugs, including Crack. Crack, sometimes called rock, is a stimulant derived from cocaine treatment, but in Iran, it is derived from heroin derivatives, and consumption of this type of drug can add up to 3-times. Crack users are at an increased risk of both physical and mental illness and social harm. There is also evidence that they present more psychiatric problems than the general population, in addition to the fact that Crack use and mental disorders are mutually aggravated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single dose of Crack for the antioxidant system of swelling in Rats.
Material and Methods: Thirty Wistar Rats were selected with a mean weight of 25 ±250 and kept in 5 groups of 6 in a glass aquarium with 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness and the same nutritional conditions and free access to water. After acclimation to the Crack medium at a dose of 7.8 mg/kg, it was injected intraperitoneally (IP) in 4 treatment groups. In the control group, only physiological serum was used. The first group received 3 hours, the second group 6 hours, the third group 24 hours and the fourth group 1 week after the injection of the tail vein after anesthesia. In the control group, blood samples were taken on the first day. One sample was used anticoagulant. Then activity of Blood’s Catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase and Super-Oxide Dismutase were measured.
Results and Discussion: Crack is first metabolized in the liver. 1% of it is excreted unchanged in the urine. Metabolization is the design of the hydrolytic ester, and the most important metabolites derived from the metabolism of Benzoylecgonine (BE) and other metabolites are: Ecgonine and (EME) Ecgonine Methyl Ester cocaine and its derivatives are clavulanates and its derivatives. Depending on how it is used, it has a degree of purity and dose. Its stimulatory effects include increased activity, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, and palatability. Other complications include coronary artery spasm, cardiac arrest, bronchospasm, systemic and pulmonary eosinophilic fever, chest pain, difficulty breathing and gingivitis. This drug (Crack-Cocaine) binds to the effective transporter site of amines (serotonin-dopamine-adrenaline light) and prevents their reabsorption into presynaptic neurons. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter in the brain that induces pleasurable drug behaviors. In other words, the increase in dopamine in the brain will have pleasurable effects.
One of the important effects of increased dopamine after drug use especially crack and cocaine is the creation of oxidative conditions. In other words, there is an increase in free radicals after drug use. An increase in this neurotoxicity in the nervous system, and especially in the synaptic cleft, results in an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).
Free radicals are atoms or molecules that are highly reactive due to the unpaired electrons in the body, causing severe damage to macromolecules including fats, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. These substances are cytotoxic, so they can be electronically macromolecules and cause irritation in the cells in order to reach stability. The body has an antioxidant system that can counteract these damaging agents called antioxidants, which can prevent damage by affecting oxidants and neutralizing its electrons. These include vitamins E, C, A, as well as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, etc.
Free radicals such as superoxide anion, hydroxide radical, are metals such as iron and copper. Oxygen-free radicals are referred to as Reactive oxygen species (ROS).
The reason for the increase in free radicals during drug use, especially crack and cocaine, maybe due to increased levels of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine, which increase the reactive oxygen species.
Super-Oxide Dismutase and Catalase have important roles in the protection of lipid peroxidation. Super-Oxide Dismutase has antioxidant role and Catalase plays an important role in detoxification of high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, which is mainly in erythrocytes.
Conclusion: The results showed that the number of antioxidants decreased significantly at 6 and 24 hours after injection (p