بررسی اثرات عصاره‌ و پودر پوست انار بر الگوی لیپیدی سرم و ساختار بافتی کلیه به‌‎دنبال مسمومیت تجربی با کادمیوم در بلدرچین ژاپنی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علوم پایه، دانشکده‌ دامپزشکی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

2 دانشجوی رشته‌ دامپزشکی، دانشکده‌ دامپزشکی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه علوم درمانگاهی، دانشکده‌ دامپزشکی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

10.30495/jvcp.2020.671340

چکیده

کادمیوم عنصر کمیابی است که مواجه طولانی با آن منجر به مسمومیت در انسان و حیوانات می‌گردد. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، بررسی اثرات عصاره‌ و پودر پوست انار بر الگوی لیپیدی سرم و ساختار بافتی کلیه به‌دنبال مسمومیت با کادمیوم در بلدرچین ژاپنی بود. بدین منظور تعداد 510 قطعه جوجه بلدرچین ژاپنی 7 روزه به 10 گروه مساوی تقسیم‌ شدند. گروه‌های 1 و 2 به‌ترتیب به‌عنوان کنترل منفی و کنترل مسمومیت با کادمیوم با دز ppm 20، گروه‌های 3 و 4 به­ترتیب به‌عنوان دریافت­کننده عصاره‌ 1/0 و 2/0 درصد پوست انار به‌همراه ppm 20 کادمیوم، گروه­های 5 و 6 به­ترتیب به‌عنوان دریافت­کننده پودر 1 و 2 درصد پوست انار به‌همراه ppm 20 کادمیوم، گروه 7 به‌عنوان دریافت کننده عصاره 1/0 درصد پوست انار، گروه 8 به‌عنوان دریافت کننده عصاره 2/0 درصد پوست انار و گروه‌های 9 و 10 به ترتیب به‌عنوان دریافت­کننده پودر 1 و 2 درصد پوست انار انتخاب شدند. در روز 42، همه پرندگان کشتار شده و از بافت کلیه آن­ها مقاطع بافتی تهیه گردید و با استفاده از شبکه نقطه‌ای تحت بررسی استریولوژی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاکی از عدم وجود اختلاف آماری معنی‌دار بین گروه‌های مختلف از لحاظ شمارش تعداد لولههای پیچیده دور و مساحت بافت بینابینی کلیه بود. اما اختلاف آماری معنی‌داری از لحاظ شمارش تعداد لولههای پیچیده نزدیک در واحد سطح بین گروههای 9 و 2 مشاهده گردید (05/0p<­). همچنین یافته‌های پاتولوژی، آسیب‌های بافتی را در گروه‌های دریافت­کننده کادمیوم نشان داد. همچنین مشخص گردید که میزان کلسترول در گروه‌ دریافت­کننده عصاره 2/0 درصد پوست انار به­علاوه کادمیوم و گروه‌ دریافت­کننده عصاره 1/0 درصد کاهش معنی‌داری نسبت به گروه کنترل کادمیوم داشت (05/0p<­). مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که استفاده از عصاره و پودر پوست انار تا‌حدودی باعث کاهش آسیب کلیه و بهبود الگوی لیپیدی سرم در مسمومیت با کادمیوم در جوجه‌ بلدرچین­های ژاپنی میشود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects extract of peanuts and pomegranate powder on the lipid profile and tissue structure of the kidneys following the poisoning of experimental cadmium in Japanese quail

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahmat Allah Fatahian Dehkordi 1
  • Mohammad Reza Alijani 2
  • rasool rahimi Junqani 2
  • Shahab Bahadoran 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
2 Student of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Cadmium is a trace metal that chronic exposure to it leads to poisoning in humans and animals. This heavy and toxic metal has deleterious effects on vital organs such as the liver, kidneys and immune system. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of extract and powder of peel of pomegranate on the lipid profile and tissue structure of the kidneys following the experimental cadmium poisoning in Japanese quail.
For this purpose, five hundred and ten 7-day-old quail chicks were divided into 10 equal groups. Group 1) and Group 2) were selected as negative control and cadmium control (20 ppm) respectively; Group (3) and Group (4) received 0.1% and 0.2% pomegranate peel extract with 20 ppm of cadmium, Group (5) received 1% pomegranate peel powder with 20 ppm of cadmium; group (6) received 2% pomegranate peel powder along with 20 ppm of cadmium; Group (7) received 0.2% pomegranate peel extract; Group (8) received 0.1% pomegranate peel extract; Group (9) received 1% pomegranate peel powder; Group (10) received 2% pomegranate peel powder.
On day 42, blood samples were collected from the brachial vein, and centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 15 minutes. The plasma was isolated from samples and kept at -20°C until lipid profile analysis. The concentration of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) in the serum of birds in different groups were determined using specific kits (Pars Azmoon -Iran). The low density lipoprotein (LDL) was evaluated using Friedewald equation. Then, the birds were slaughtered and the kidney samples were removed from the abdominal area and transferred to formalin. 5 micrometers sections were prepared and stereological study was performed using a point grid. The statistical analysis was performed using One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey multiple comparison tests using 5% level of significance. All results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (S.D).
The results showed that the highest number of proximal tubes was in the 1% pomegranate peel powder group which was significantly higher than the positive control group (p

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • pomegranate
  • kidney
  • Cadmium
  • Japanese quail
  • Lipid profile
  • Adema, C.M., Van der Knaap, W. and Sminia, T. (1991). Ediated Cytotoxicity: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates. Reviews in Aquatic Sciences, 4(1): 201-223.
  • Aviram, M., Dornfeld, L., Rosenblat, M., Volkova, N., Kaplan, M., Coleman, R., et al. (2000). Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E–deficient mice. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(6): 1062-1076.
  • Babu, K.R., Rajmohan, H.R.R. and Rajan, B.K.M. (2006). Plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes status in workers exposed to cadmium. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 22(3): 329-335.
  • Bernard, A., Lauwerys, R., and Amor, A.O. (1992). Loss of glomerular polyanion correlated with albuminuria in experimental cadmium nephropathy. Archives of Toxicology, 66(2): 272-278.
  • Beytut, Y., Kamiloglu, B. and Aksakal, H .(2003). Role of dietary vitamin E in cadmium-induced oxidative damage in rabbit’s blood, liver and kidneys. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 73(2): 351-355.
  • Bhandari, P.R. (2012). Pomegranate (Punica granatum L). Ancient seeds for modern cure? Review of potential therapeutic applications. International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases, 2(3): 171.
  • Boujelben, M., Ghorbel, F., Vincent, C., Makni-Ayadi, F., Guermazi, F., Croute, F., et al. (2006). Lipid peroxidation and HSP72/73 expression in rat following cadmium chloride administration: interactions of magnesium supplementation. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 57(7): 437-443.
  • Chwełatiuk, E., Włostowski, T., Krasowska, A. and Bonda, E. (2006). The effect of orally administered melatonin on tissue accumulation and toxicity of cadmium in mice. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 19(4): 259-265.
  • Commission, E. (2001). Commission Regulation (EC) No 466/2001 of 8 March 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Brussels: European Commission, 56(3): 12-13.
  • El-Sharaky, A., Newairy, A., Badreldeen, M., Eweda, S. and Sheweita, S. (2007). Protective role of selenium against renal toxicity induced by cadmium in rats. Toxicology, 235(19): 185-193.
  • Friedewald, W.T., Levy, R.I. and Fredrickson, D.S. (1972). Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry, 18(6): 499-502.
  • Fani makki, O., Ebrahimzadeh, A., Ansari, N.H. and Ghazaghi, M. (2013). Effect of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) herbs on immunity and some blood metabolites in broiler chicks. Journal of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 7(26): 1836-1843. [In Persian]
  • Garcá-Fernández, A., Sanchez-Garcia, J., Gomez-Zapata, M. and Luna, A. (1996). Distribution of cadmium in blood and tissues of wild birds. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 30(3): 252-258.
  • Goyer, R.A., Miller, C.R., Zhu, S. and Victery, W. (1989). Non-metallothionein-bound cadmium in the pathogenesis of cadmium nephrotoxicity in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 101(4): 232-244.
  • Heber, D., Schulman, R.N. and Seeram, N.P. (2006). Pomegranates: ancient roots to modern medicine. CRC Press, 30(7): 25-28.
  • Howard, C.V. and Reed, M.G. (1998). Unbiased stereology Three-dimensional measurement in microscopy. Oxford: Bios Scientific Publishers, 3(1): 143.
  • Ikeda, M., Ezaki, T., Moriguchi, J., Fukui, Y., Ukai, H., Okamoto, S. and Sakurai, H. (2005). The threshold cadmium level that causes a substantial increase in β2-microglobulin in urine of general populations. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 20(5): 247-261.
  • Järup, L. (2002). Cadmium overload and toxicity. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 17(1): 35-39.
  • Jin, T., Leffler, P. and Nordberg, G.F. (1987). Cadmium-metallothionein nephrotoxicity in the rat: transient calcuria and proteinuria. Toxicology, 45(5): 307-317.
  • Jurczuk, M., Brzóska, M.M., Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J., Gałażyn-Sidorczuk, M. and Kulikowska-Karpińska, E. (2004). Antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of rats exposed to cadmium and ethanol. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42(7): 429-438.
  • Karimi, O., Hesaraki, S. and Mortazavi, S.P (2017). Histological and Functional Alteration in the Liver and Kidney and the Response of Antioxidants in Japanese quail Exposed to Dietary Cadmium. Iranian Journal of Toxicology, 11(3): 19-26.
  • Khateeb, J., Gantman, A., Kreitenberg, AJ., Aviram M. and Fuhrman, B. (2010). Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) expression in hepatocytes is upregulated by pomegranate polyphenols: a role for PPAR-γ pathway. Artherosclerosis, 208(3): 119-25.
  • Kim, Y.S., Hwang, J.W., Kang, S.H., Kim, E.H., Jeon, Y.J., Jeong., et al. (2014). Thymol from Thymus quinquecostatus Celak. protects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in Chang cells. Journal of Natural Medicines, 68(2): 154-162.
  • Kumar, K.P., Reddy, V.R. and Prakash, M.G. (2018). Effect of supplementing pomegranate (punicagranatum) peel extract on serum biochemical parameters and immune response in broiler duringsummer. Pharma Innovation, 7(1): 591-601.
  • Larregle, E.V., Varas, S.M. and Olivreos, L.B. (2008). Lipidmetabolism in liver of rat exposed to cadmium. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(2): 1786-1792.
  • Larrosa, M., González-Sarrías, A., Yáñez-Gascón, M.J., Selma, M.V., Azorín-Ortuño, M., Toti, S., et al. (2010). Anti-inflammatory properties of a pomegranate extract and its metabolite urolithin-A in a colitis rat model and the effect of colon inflammation on phenolic metabolism. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21(1): 717-725.
  • Lee, C., Chen, L. and Wang, C. (2010). Anti-inflammatory effects of Punica granatum Linne in LPS-induced primary human chondrocytes. Planta Medica, 76(6): 659.
  • Leffel, E.K., Wolf, C., Poklis, A. and White Jr, K.L. (2003). Drinking water exposure to cadmium, an environmental contaminant, results in the exacerbation of autoimmune disease in the murine model. Toxicology, 188(11): 233-250.
  • Leiva, K.P., Rubio, J., Peralta, F. and Gonzales, G.F. (2011). Effect of Punica granatum (pomegranate) on sperm production in male rats treated with lead acetate. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, 21(3): 495-502.
  • Mason, J., Chemat, F. and Vinatoru, M. (2011). The extraction of natural products using ultrasound or microwaves. Current Organic Chemistry, 15(2): 237-47.
  • Matés, J.M., Pérez-Gómez, C. and De Castro, I.N. (1999). Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases. Clinical Biochemistry, 32(8): 595-603.
  • McFarland, C., Bendell-Young, L., Guglielmo, C. and Williams, T. (2002). Kidney, liver and bone cadmium content in the Western Sandpiper in relation to migration. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 4(1): 791-795.
  • Mehraein-Ghomi, F., Basu, H.S., Church, D.R., Hoffmann, F.M. and Wilding, G. (2010). Androgen receptor requires JunD as a coactivator to switch on an oxidative stress generation pathway in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Research, 25 (3): 18-25.
  • Murugavel, P., Pari, L. (2007). Diallyl tetrasulfide modulates the cadmium-induced impairment of membrane bound enzymes in rats. Journal of Basic Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 18(3): 37- 48.
  • Nai, G.A., Golghetto, J.J. and Estrella, M.P. (2015). pH Dependence of Cadmium-Contaminated Drinking Water on the Development of Cardiovascular Injury in Wistar Rats. Biological Trace Element Research, 165(3): 81-85.
  • Parseh, H., Hassanpour, S., Emam-djome, Z. and Lavasani, A.S. (2012). Antimicrobial properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) as a Tannin rich Fruit, The 1st International and the 4th National Congress on Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, Isfahan, Iran.
  • Renugadevi, J. and Prabu, S.M. (2009). Naringenin protects against cadmium-induced oxidative renal dysfunction in rats. Toxicology, 256(3): 128-134.
  • Renugadevi, J. and Prabu, S.M. (2010). Quercetin protects against oxidative stress-related renal dysfunction by cadmium in rats. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 62(4): 471-481.
  • Ricci, D., Giamperi, L., Bucchini, A. and Fraternale, D. (2006) Antioxidant activity of Punica grantum fruits.  Fitoterapia, 77(3): 310-312.
  • Rouzmehr, F., Mohit A., Khoshsekeh, M. and Hassanzadeh, M. (2014). The Effect Of The Additive Containing Artichoke Extract (Apc) On Growth Performance, Blood Cholesterol Level, Carcass Characteristics And Immune System Of Broiler Chickens. Journal of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 8(29): 357-366. [In Persian]
  • Salińska, A., Włostowski, T. and Oleńska, E. (2013). Differential susceptibility to cadmium-induced liver and kidney injury in wild and laboratory-bred bank voles Myodes glareolus. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 65(2): 324-331.
  • Sant’Ana, M., Moraes, R. and Bernardi, M. (2005). Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response. Environmental Research, 99(7): 273-277.
  • Sarkhosh, A., Zamani, Z., FatahiMoghadam, M. and Ghorbani Ghozhadi, H. (2007). Review of Phormological and Medicinal Properties of Pomegranate. Medical Plant, 6(3): 200-205.
  • Shati, A.A. (2011). Effects of Origanum majorana L. on cadmium induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in albino rats.  Saudi Medical Journal, 32(4): 797-805.
  • Shukla, G.S. and Chandra, S. (1989). Cadmium toxicity and bioantioxidants: status of vitamin E and ascorbic acid of selected organs in rat. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 9(1): 119-122.
  • Sisman, A.R., Bulbul, M., Çoker, C. and Onvural, B. (2003). Cadmium exposure in tobacco workers: possible renal effects. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 17(4): 51.
  • Verma, R.J. and Asnani, V. (2007). Ginger extract ameliorates paraben induced biochemical changes in liver and kidney of mice. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, 64(3): 217-220.
  • Yadav, N. and Khandelwal, S. (2006). Effect of Picroliv on cadmium-induced hepatic and renal damage in the rat. Human & Experimental Toxicology, 25(1): 581-591.
  • Zadeh Adamnezhad, H., Ghiasi, G.J. and Ebrahimnezhad, Y. (2015). Effect of different levels of selenium and vitamin e on blood biochemical parameters in the japanese quail. Journal of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 9 (35): 243-252. [In Persian]
  • Zhang, L.H., Li, L.L., Li, Y.X. and Zhang, Y.H., (2006). In vitro antioxidant activities of fruits and leaves of pomegranate, XXVII International Horticultural Congress-IHC2006: International Symposium on Plants as Food and Medicine: The Utilization Kunming, China, 4(2-3): 201-23.