بررسی مقادیر کادمیوم در شیر و ارتباط آن با میزان تولید شیر در گاوداری‌های منطقه تبریز

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه علوم درمانگاهی دامپزشکی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

کادمیوم از جمله فلزاتی می‌باشد که به­طور وسیع در محیط پراکنده است. منبع اصلی این فلز ترکیبات صنعتی و کودهای فسفاته می‌باشد. این فلز توسط گیاهان جذب شده و در بافت­هایی مانند کبد و کلیه تجمع یافته و باعث بروز کم­خونی، افزایش فشار خون، تخریب بافت بیضه و عوارض استخوانی می‌شود. با توجه به عوارض متعدد وجود کادمیوم، لازم است در مناطق مختلف مطالعه‌ای در ارتباط با میزان آلودگی شیر تولیدی گاوها به این فلز صورت گیرد تا در صورتی که میزان  آن از حد مجاز بالاتر باشد، تدابیر لازم نسبت به کاهش آلودگی شیر به این فلز، اتخاذ گردد. برای انجام این مطالعه، به اخذ نمونه شیر از منطقه شمال، جنوب، شرق و غرب گاوداری‌های صنعتی و سنتی شهرستان تبریز به تعداد مجموعاً 400 نمونه پس از بررسی میزان تولید شیر، اقدام گردید. سپس نمونه‌ها در 21- درجه سلسیوس منجمد گشته و در پایان نمونه‌برداری به اندازه‌گیری مقادیر کادمیوم در نمونه شیر به روش اسپکتروفوتومتری جذب اتمی شعله، اقدام گردید. مقادیر میانگین کادمیوم به ترتیب در منطقه غرب ppm 0005/0±006/0، در منطقه جنوب ppm 0005/0±004/0، در منطقه شمال  ppm0004/0± 0059/0 و در منطقه شرق تبریز ppm 0002/0± 0037/0 تعیین گردید. مقایسه آماری میانگین مقادیر کادمیوم شیر در مناطق چهارگانه بررسی­شده، نشان‌دهندة وجود اختلاف معنی‌داری بود (05/0p<). همچنین در این مطالعه ارتباط آماری معنی‌داری مابین میانگین مقادیر کادمیوم و میزان تولید روزانه شیر مشاهده نگردید. با توجه به اینکه میزان مجاز کادمیوم در شیر خام طبق کدکس 2000 (کمیته بررسی افزودنی‌های مواد غذائی در ژنو)  ppm01/0 می‌باشد، لذا نتیجه­گیری می­گردد که مقادیر کادمیوم شیر در چهار منطقه مورد بررسی پایین‌تر از حد مجاز می‌باشد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Survey on the amount of cadmium in milk and its correlation with milk production in dairy farms of Tabriz area

نویسنده [English]

  • amir parviz rezaei saber
member of science academic tabriz university
چکیده [English]

Cadmium is a metal widely dispersed in the environment. The main sources of this metal are industrial compounds and phosphate fertilizers. This metal is absorbed by plants and accumulates and accumulates in tissues like liver and kidney and causes anemia, hypertension, destruction of testicular tissue and bone complications. Considering the numerous side effects of cadmium, it is necessary to determine the amount of cadmium in milk in different areas in order to reduce milk contamination. In this study, a total of 400 milk samples were obtained from industrial and traditional farms from northern, southern, eastern and western areas of the city of Tabriz. All samples were frozen at -21°C and the concentration of cadmium in milk was measured by atomic flame spectrophotometry. The average values of cadmium in western, southern, northern and eastern areas of Tabriz were respectively 0/006 ± 0/0005 ppm, 0/0005 ± 0/004 ppm, 0/0004± 0/0059 ppm and 0/0002 ± 0/0037 ppm. Statistical comparison of cadmium concentrations in different areas indicated a significant difference (p<0/05). Also, a statistically significant relationship between the mean values of cadmium and daily milk production wasn't observed. Since the permitted levels of cadmium in raw milk according to Codex 2000 (Review Committee on Food Additives Geneva) is 0.01 ppm, therefore it is concluded that cadmium levels in the four regions studied is lower than the limit.
Conflict of interest: None declared.  
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Milk cadmium
  • Tabriz
  • dairy cow
  • Atomic absorption spectrometry
  • Afshar, M., Taheri, A. and Ra, M. (1998). Cadmium levels in milk consumption in Tehran flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Journal of Legal Medicine Scientific, 4(13): 43-51. [In Persian]
  • Al Khalifa, A. and Ahmad, D. (2010). Determination of key elements by ICP-OES in commercially available infant formulae and baby foods in Saudi Arabia. African Journal of Food Science, 4(7): 464-468.
  • Angle, J.S. and Chaney, R.L. (1991). Heavy metal effects on soil population and heavy metal tolerance of Rhizobium meliloti, nodulation and growth of alfalfa. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 57-58: 597-604.
  • Azevedo, H., Gomes, C., Pinto, G. and Santos, C. (2005). Cadmium effects in sunflower: Nutritional imbalances in plants and calluses. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 28: 2221-2231.
  • Ballantyne, B., Marrs, T.C. and Syversen, T.  (1999). General and Applied Toxicology. 2nd ed., Macmillan Publishers, pp: 2052-2062.
  • Bonyadian, M., Moshtaghi, H. and Soltani, Z. (2006). Determination of lead and Cadmium in raw and pasteurized milk in ShahreKord areas. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 84(2): 74-81. [In Persia]
  • Caney, R. (1990). Public health and sludge utilization. Biocycle, 20(31): 68-73.
  • Castro, C.S.P.D., Arruda, A.F., Cunha, L.R.D., SouzaDe, J.R., Braga, J.W.B. and Dorea, J.G. (2010). Toxic metals (Pb and Cd) and their respective antagonists (Ca and Zn) in infant formulas and milk marketed in Brasilia. International Journal of Environmental Research Public Health, Brazil, 7(11): 4062-4077.
  • Chinikar, S., Amirkhani, A., Smar, M. and Saghiri, R. (1997).The study heavy metal in consumer milk by atomic absorption spectrometry. Paper Presented at the Forth Congressional Biochemistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, 75(2): 19-22. [In Persia]
  • Conor, R. (2002). Metal Contamination of Food. 3rd ed., Oxford: Wiley Blackwell Publishing, pp: 12-40.
  • Dabeka, R., Fouquet, A., Belisle, S. and Turcotte, S. (2011). Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions. Food Additive Contamination, 28(6): 744-753.
  • Dadfarnia, Sh., Hajishabani, A., Salmanzade, A. and Hojjat, P. (2004). Assessed the amount of lead and cadmium in Yazd breast-feeding. Journal of Medical Science of Yazd University, 40(4): 27-39. [In Persian]
  • Dalton, D.A. (1995). Oxidative stress and antioxidation defense in biology. In: Antioxidant Defense in Plants and Fungi. Ahamd, S. editor. 1st ed., USA: New York, Chapman & Hall, pp: 356-434.
  • Erdinc, B.D. and Saldamli, I. (2000). Variation in some heavy metals during the production of white cheese. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 53(5): 471-472.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization. (2000). Evaluation of certain food Additives and contaminant. Export Committee on Food Additives.www.fao.org/DOCREP/ARTICLE.
  • Fu, J., Zhou, Q., Liu, J., Liu, W., Wang, T., Zhang, Q., et al. (2008). High levels of heavy metals in rice from a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential risk to human health. Chemosphere, 71: 1269-1275.
  • Hoffmann, M.R., Martin, S.T., Choi, W. and Bahnemann, D.W. (1995). Environmental application of semiconductor photocatalysis. Chemical Reviews, 95: 69-96.
  • Ikem, A., Nwankwoala, A., Odueyungbo, S., Nyavor, K. and Egiebor N. (2002). Levels of 26 elements in infant formula from USA, UK, and Nigeria by microwave digestion and ICP-OES. Food Chemistry, 77(4): 439-447.
  • Javadi, A., Haghighi, B., Abdollahi, A. and Nejat, H. (2005). Assessment and Determination of levels of toxic metals mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium in cow's milk. Journal of Esfahan University Research, 22(2): 57-70. [In Persian]
  • Jeng, S.L., Lee, S.J. and Lin, S.Y. (1994). Determination of cadmium and lead in raw milk by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Journal of Dairy Science, 77(14): 945-949.
  • Jing, J. and Logan, TJ. (1992). Effect of sewage sludge cadmium concentration on chemical extractability and plant Uptake. Journal of Environmental Quality, 21: 73-81.
  • Jorhem, L. and Engman, J. (2000). Determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, and iron by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion: NMKL collaborative study. An International Journal of Analytical Science, 83(5): 189-203.
  • Karbasi, A., Bidhendi, Gh., Moattar, F. and Barzegari, Z. (2009). Source and biological availability of heavy metals in the soil of northern west Tehran. Environmental Science and Technology, 11(3): 18-25. [In Persian]
  • Kazi, T.G., Jalbani, N., Baig, J.A., Afridi, H.I., Kandhro, G.A., Arain, M.B., et al. (2009). Determination of toxic elements in infant formulae by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer. Journal of Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(7): 1425-1429.
  • Mitiovic, R., Zivkovic, D., Nikic, D. and Stojanovic, D. (1992). Lead and cadmium in human, cows and adapted milks. Hrana-I-Ishrana, 33(2): 153-155.
  • Moreno, R.R., Sunchez, P.G. and Amaro Lopes, M.A. (1999). Influence of the pasteurization and desiccation processes of milk on it lead and cadmium contents. Journal of Food Additives and Contaminants, 54(4): 210- 212.
  • Najarnezhad, V. and Akbarabadi, M. (2013).Heavy metals in raw cow and ewe milk from north east Iran. Journal of Food Additives and Contaminants, 6(3): 158-162.
  • Nujumi, M. (2003). Food Poisoning. 1st ed., Iran: Tehran, Fanneroze Press, pp: 72-78. [In Persian]
  • Parvane, V. (1992). Quality Control and Chemical Tests of Food. Iran: Tehran University Press, pp: 325. [In Persian]
  • Qin, L.Q., Wang, X.P., Li, W., Tong, X. and Tong, W.J. (2009). The minerals and heavy metals in cow's milk from China and Japan. Journal of Health Science, 55(2): 300-305.
  • Rahimi Alashti, S., Bahmanyar, M. and Ghajar Sepanlou, M. (2011). The effects of sewage sludge application on pH, EC, O.C, Pb and Cd in soil and lettuce and radish plants. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 18(3): 85-90. [In Persian]
  • Sahu, S.C. (2015). Editorial nanotoxicology and nanomedicine a special issue of the food and chemical toxicology. Food Chemical Toxicology, 15: 30022-30023.
  • Salaramoli, J. and Aliesfahani, T. (2015). Determination of hazardous substances in food basket eggs in Tehran, Iran: A preliminary study. Journal of Veterinary Research Forum, 6: 155-159. [In Persian]
  • Saracoglu, S., Saygi, K.O., Uluozlu, O.D., Tuzen, M. and Soylak, M. (2007). Determination of trace element contents of baby foods from Turkey. Food Chemistry, 105(1): 280-285.
  • Sepehri, M., Saleh Rastin, N., Asadi Rahmani, H. and Alikhani, H. (2003). Effects of Soil Pollution by Cadmium on nodulation and nitrogen fixation native strains of Sinorhizobium Mlyaty. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 10(1): 72-78. [In Persian]
  • Shakerian, A. (2005). Determination of lead and cadmium contamination in milk and the effects of cooking and separation of fat on then by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and potentiometric analysis. Science Research, 1: 56-70.
  • Xuan, Z., Wolfgan, H. and Guichun, Y. (2002). Elimination of cadmium contamination from drinking water. Water Research, 36: 851-858.
  • Yasayi Mehrjordi, G.H., Ezzatpanah, H., Yasini ardakani, S. and Dadfarnia, S.H. (2009). Evaluation of lead and cadmium levels in raw milk in different areas of Yazd. Journal of Food and Nutrition, 7(3): 35-43. [In Persia]